I was getting this issue on a brand new freshly installed and patched windows server, where I wanted to install SQL 2016 where KB2919355 is prerequisite.
If you are fast like me and only searching for download files on the Microsoft support web page then you missed this text:
When you install update KB2919355 by using Windows Update, the installation fails with error code 0x80071a91, apply this hotfix https://support.microsoft.com/kb/2939087/
When you install update KB2919355, the installation fails with error code 0x80070005. Apply this hotfix https://support.microsoft.com/kb/2975061/
The second link and patch that is around 11MB big helped me and now I am appliying Windows 2012 R2 Update 1 on the WS 2012R2.